Touch is the first sensation that starts developing in the womb at five weeks. Some children react adversely, negatively or display escape-like behaviour on being touched, hugged or kissed since they have difficulties in processing sensory information due to the poor tactile system. This behaviour is referred as Tactile Defensiveness.
Research done by Feig et al (2012), concludes that there is a significant relationship between Tactile defensiveness and Self-stimulatory behaviours.They both are problematic as they appear and interfere in child's day-to-day activities. For example, a child who engages in hand flapping may not be able to do any other activity such as washing herself or eating on her own. Likewise, due to tactile defensiveness doing teeth-brushing or other self-care activities will be difficult.
Here are some of the suggestions for tactile defensiveness which may or may not be helpful, as each child is different, however making appropriate changes within child’s environment or strategies according to his needs and priorities can support him to live better and stay calmer.
A) Understand your child: (Address child's issues seriously= Trustworthy relationship + better behaved child)
B) Deep Pressure: (Leads to release of Dopamine or "happy neurotransmitter"= Calm brain & relaxed body)Firm massage or deep pressure with pillows, cushions or rolling in a weighted blanket is very calming. Parents should understand signals when these strategies are needed. Children having sensitivities are overloaded with touch or noise in crowded places or parties. Parents should be aware of these situations and intervention should be provided before emotional or anger outbursts happens.Children get sleep disturbances caused due to sensory issues.Using techniques like Wilbarger Brushing Protocol has been found to be an effective way of calming child for better sleep.
This should be under the supervision of Occupational Therapist or consult child's OT before trying Brushing Technique.
C) Weighted Items: (Stimulates body joints & muscles = Improves self-regulation,modulation,stress and anxiety)Wearing weighted blankets, vests, backpacks or hats can have the calming effect in the classroom as well as at home. Great range of weighted items is available on Amazon such as ankle weights, lap weights shoulder and neck weights. They help to calm down a child in the classroom as well as any other environment leading her to focus on the task and reduce distraction. Weighted blankets are very helpful in calming the child’s distractibility, emotional liability, and hyper activeness. Another very good resource is TFH, South Paw.
T-Jackets have been found to be a good resource of calming down a child. They have been scientifically customised for providing deep pressure and calming effects.
D) Safety: (Prevention is better than cure so TAKE-CARE of child!)Children who are hypo-responsive or sensory seeking towards touch are unaware of bruises and injuries. They do not get pain sensation messages from brain centers due to which they are prone to injuries. They may display self-stimulating or self-injurious behaviours along with tactile defensiveness.The stereotyped behaviours are common among Autistic children. Most common form is motor patterns are hand flapping, body gazing or object manipulation. Temple (1992) in her study Calming Effects of Deep Touch Pressure in Patients with Autistic Disorder, College Students, and Animals has suggested that Tactile Defensiveness co-exists with Stereotypical behaviour in Autism .Sensory Modulation and regulation is an important function which does not work well in both hyper and hyposensitivity of touch.It is important to follow some hands-on strategies such as:
- Use of sensory experiences :Such as trampoline jumping,obstacle course, running
- Follow Routines and maintain structure: e.g., planning a week ahead
- Communication: Understanding child's behaviour in anticipation, environment, emotional liability.
- Visual Support: Emotion's chart, use of PECS.
- Talk to GP about Medication.
- Use Barriers such as using cushions or pillows if the child does head banging,or tie the cloth on his hand to reduce self-biting.
- Use soft furniture.
- Keep rooms safe, the child should not be able to lock himself in a room, windows should not be wide-open.
- Keep sharp objects like knife, fork, scissors, razors out of reach of the child.
F) Fabrics: (Removal of unpleasant sensory input = Relief & physical comfort)Pay attention to the different fabrics. Following tips may be helpful related to fabrics:-
- Give preference to child's fabric or texture.Some children like to wear cotton and avoid woolens, synthetics or any other texture that might irritate them.
- Wearing skin fit clothing is preferable than loose clothing.
- Stick to seamless clothing.
- Liners and tags are always irritable making child impulsive and distracted easily. Removing or cutting tags is the simple solution for this.
- As far as footwear is concerned, it should be comfortable and slip on type. Fasteners are also the good option if he finds tying laces complicated.
- Long sleeves are preferable than short arm sleeves.
- Do not force him to wear belts, waistbands if he doesn’t feel good about it.
H) Active Involvement: (Child knows himself better than anyone else)
I) Classroom Strategies: (Favourable IEP = Better provisions = Better behaved child + raised self-esteem)
sit alone if he gets distracted by other pupil’s touch. Talk to teachers and school management to create awareness about your child’s difficulties. Teachers should know what child is going through and why is he distracted multiple times or scratches himself during the lessons. They should allow the child to do wall pushes or chair pushes if he feels calming during break times. The child should also get movement breaks if the teacher allows. This should be included in his IEP. http://www.additudemag.com/adhd/article/5894.html
J) Inform before touching: (Respect child's integrity)Hugs, kisses or any other type of touch should be done with consent. Ask or inform him before touching the child. This reduces anxiety levels and arousal too.Touching without consent can create disruptive behaviour. To know more about cause and neuroscience of tactile defensiveness click here.
K) Heavy Work Activities (Proprioceptive Input): (Tactile + proprioceptive input = calming effects,reduced anxiety,disruptive behaviour)Pushing and pulling heavy objects such as barrels, carts, large bean bags,
the pile of chairs or pushing another child on the swing. All this
gives proprioceptive input!
These activities provide deep pressure to muscles, joints, ligaments and key points of the body (Shoulders, Pelvis, Hips) to a tactile defensive child.
Moreover, giving movement breaks will support a child to concentrate better in studies, such as sending him to an office to handover papers or asking him to distribute assignments in the classroom. See Classroom strategies for more information.